End Notes

Introduction

  1. Andre Standing, Transnational Organized Crime and the Palermo Convention: A Reality Check (December 2010), International Peace Institute, p. 2.
  2. U.S. Department of Justice, National Drug Intelligence Center, The Economic Impact of Illicit Drug Use on American Society, 2011 (Apr. 2011), p. ix, 2011-Q0317-002, http://www.justice.gov/archive/ndic/pubs44/44731/44731p.pdf.

Chapter 1

  1. National Security Council, Strategy to Combat Transnational Organized Crime: Definition, http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/eop/nsc/transnational-crime/definition, accessed on Feb. 5, 2014.
  2. Id.
  3. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Digest of Organized Crime Cases (2012), p. 13.
  4. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, The Globalization of Crime: A Transnational Organized Crime Threat Assessment (2010), p. 3.
  5. U.S. Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration, National Drug Threat Assessment 2013 (May 2013), p. v.
  6. Bruce Bagley, Drug Trafficking and Organized Crime in the Americas: Major Trends in the Twenty-First Century (Aug. 2012), Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Latin American Program, p. 8.
  7. Id.; Federal Research Division, Library of Congress, Organized Crime And Terrorist Activity in Mexico, 1999-2002 (Feb. 2003), p. 3, http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/pdf-files/OrgCrime_Mexico.pdf.
  8. June S. Beittel, Mexico’s Drug Trafficking Organizations: Source and Scope of the Violence, Congressional Research Service (Apr. 15, 2013), pp. 11-12.
  9. Id. at p. 3; Scott Stewart, The Real ‘El Chapo’, Stratfor: Global Intelligence (Nov. 1, 2012), http://www.stratfor.com/weekly/real-el-chapo.
  10. Id. at p. 11; Samuel Logan, Tracking the Sinaloa Federation’s International Presence, InSight Crime (Apr. 30, 2013), http://www.insightcrime.org/news-analysis/tracking-the-sinaloa-federations-international-presence#ft30.
  11. Interview with Santa Clara County Sheriff’s Office Gang Expert (Oct. 22, 2013).
  12. Id.
  13. Hans Johnson & Marisol Cuellar Mejia, Immigrants in California (May 2013), http://ppic.org/main/publication_show.asp?i=258, accessed on February 7, 2014.
  14. California Department of Justice, Division of Law Enforcement, Bureau of Investigation, Organized Crime in California 2010 Report, pp. 31-34; James Finchenauer, Russian Organized Crime in the United States, National Institute of Justice, http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/218560.pdf.
  15. California Department of Justice, Division of Law Enforcement, Bureau of Investigation, Organized Crime in California 2010 Report, pp. 14-15.
  16. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Transnational Organized Crime in Central America and the Caribbean: A Threat Assessment (Sept. 2012), p. 27, http://www.unodc.org/documents/data-and-analysis/Studies/TOC_Central_ America_and_the_Caribbean_english.pdf.
  17. Id. at p. 28.

Chapter 2

  1. U.S. Department of Justice, National Drug Intelligence Center, Situation Report: Cities Where Mexican Drug Trafficking Organizations Operate Within the United States (April 2010), pp. 5-6, http://info.publicintelligence.net/NDIC-Cartels-in-US-Cities.pdf.
  2. California Department of Justice, The State of Human Trafficking in California (Nov. 2012), p. 3, https://oag.ca.gov/sites/all/files/pdfs/ht/human-trafficking-2012.pdf; Coalition to Abolish Slavery and Trafficking, A Serious Problem - Around the World and in the USA, http://castla.org/key-stats, accessed on Feb. 6, 2014.
  3. The White House, Office of National Drug Control Policy, State Profile, California Drug Control Update (Jan. 15, 2012), http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/docs/state_profile_-_california_0.pdf, accessed on Feb. 6, 2014.
  4. U.S. Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Aministration, National Drug Threat Assessment Summary (2013), p. 11.
  5. Office of the Attorney General, Attorney General Kamala D. Harris: DOJ Takes Down $2 Million Drug Operation in Sacramento County (June 20, 2013), https://oag.ca.gov/news/press-releases/attorney-general-kamala-d-harris-doj-takes-down-2-million-drug-operation.
  6. U.S. Department of Justice, National Drug Intelligence Center, National Drug Threat Assessment 2011 (Aug. 2011), p. 30; Tim McGirk, Mexican Drug Cartels Set Up Shop in California Parks, Time Magazine (Aug. 22, 2009), http://content.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1917547,00.html; National Drug Intelligence Center, Marijuana and Methamphetamine Trafficking on Federal Lands Threat Assessment (Feb. 2005), http://www.justice.gov/archive/ndic/pubs10/10402/marijuan.htm, accessed on Feb. 6, 2014.
  7. U.S. Department of Justice, Central Valley California High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area, Marijuana Production in California (June 4, 2010), p. 4, http://www.slocounty.ca.gov/Assets/DAS/DAAB/Marijuana_Production_in_California.pdf, accessed on Aug. 5, 2013; Jerome Adamstein, Environmental impact of marijuanagrowing in California, L.A. Times (Dec. 22, 2012), http://framework.latimes.com/2012/12/22/environmental-impact-of-marijuana-growing-california/#/0.
  8. Tim McGirk, Mexican Drug Cartels Set Up Shop in California Parks, Time Magazine (Aug. 22, 2009), http://content.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1917547,00.html.
  9. Interview with Santa Clara County Sheriff’s Office Gang Expert (Oct. 22, 2013).
  10. U.S. Department of Justice, National Drug Intelligence Center, National Drug Threat Assessment 2011 (Aug. 2011), p. 30; Office of the Attorney General, Organized Crime in California, 2010 Annual Report to the Legislature, at p. 24, http://oag.ca.gov/sites/all/files/pdfs/publications/org_crime2010.pdf.
  11. Id.; National Methamphetamine & Pharmaceuticals Initiative, Meth Update: Status and Factors Affecting the U.S. (July 2013), pp. 3-5, accessed on Aug. 5, 2013; Jill Reploge and Fronteras, San Diego Cracks Down on Mexican Meth, Seizures Expected to Surpass 2012 Records, PBS Newshour (Aug. 6, 2013), http://www.pbs.org/newshour/rundown/san-diego-biggest-entry-point-for-mexican-meth/.
  12. National Methamphetamine & Pharmaceuticals Initiative, Meth Update: Status and Factors Affecting the U.S. (July 2013), pp. 1-2; United Nations, Office on Drugs and Crime, Transnational Organized Crime in Central America and the Caribbean: A Threat Assessment (Sept. 2012), p. 44, http://www.unodc.org/documents/data-and-analysis/Studies/TOC_Central_America_and_the_Caribbean_english.pdf, accessed on Aug. 6, 2013.
  13. Associated Press, State Agents Arrest 4 in Drug Cartel Investigation (Oct. 9, 2013), available at: http://losangeles.cbslocal.com/2013/10/09/state-agents-arrest-4-in-drug-cartel-investigation/.
  14. John Coté, San Jose Meth Bust: 750 Lbs, San Francisco Chronicle (Mar. 4, 2012), available at: http://www.sfgate.com/crime/article/San-Jose-meth-bust-750-lbs-3379571.php.
  15. Interview with a Deputy District Attorney in the Santa Clara County District Attorney’s Office (Oct. 23, 2013).
  16. Id.
  17. San Diego Regional Pharmaceutical Narcotic Enforcement Team (RxNET), Annual Report (2012), p. 7; Monica Garske and Tony Shin, Dangerous ‘Pharma-Cartels’ Trafficking Painkillers’ (Oct. 24, 2012), http://www.nbcsandiego.com/news/local/Dangerous-Pharma-Cartels-Trafficking-Painkillers-172774811.html.
  18. San Diego Regional Pharmaceutical Narcotic Enforcement Team (RxNET), Annual Report (2012), p. 7.
  19. Id. at p. 10.
  20. Id.
  21. Id. at p. 11.
  22. Id.
  23. Office of the Attorney General, Attorney General Kamala D. Harris Announces Dismantling of International Prescription Drug Trafficking Scheme (Aug. 19, 2011), https://oag.ca.gov/news/press-releases/attorney-general-kamala-d-harris-announces-dismantling-international.
  24. Id.
  25. Id.
  26. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, World Drug Report 2013 (May 2013), p. 37, http://www.unodc.org/unodc/secured/wdr/wdr2013/World_Drug_Report_2013.pdf, accessed on Aug. 6, 2013; Bruce Bagley, Drug Trafficking and Organized Crime in the Americas: Major Trends in the Twenty-First Century, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Latin American Program (Aug. 2012), p. 2.
  27. U.S. Department of Justice, Trafficking in Persons Report: Introduction (June 2013), p. 7, http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/210737.pdf.
  28. California Department of Justice, The State of Human Trafficking in California (November 2012), p. 63, https://oag.ca.gov/sites/all/files/pdfs/ht/human-trafficking-2012.pdf; International Labour Office, Special Action Programme to Combat Forced Labour, ILO Global Estimate of Forced Labour (June 2012), http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/@ed_norm/@declaration/documents/publication/wcms_182004.pdf.
  29. California Department of Justice, The State of Human Trafficking in California (November 2012), p. 3, https://oag.ca.gov/sites/all/files/pdfs/ht/human-trafficking-2012.pdf.
  30. Id. at p. 47.
  31. Id. at p. 52.
  32. Office of the Attorney General, Attorney General Kamala D. Harris Announces Sentencing in Transnational Human Trafficking Ring (May 24, 2013), https://oag.ca.gov/news/press-releases/attorney-general-kamala-d-harris-announces-sentencing-transnational-human.
  33. U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, Project Gunrunner Fact Sheet, http://www.atf.gov/publications/factsheets/factsheet-project-gunrunner.html, accessed on Feb. 7, 2014.
  34. Id.; Luis Astorga, Arms Trafficking from the United States to Mexico: Divergent Responsibilities (Mar. 2010), International Drug Policy Consortium, IDPC Policy Briefing, p. 2.
  35. Juan Carlos Garzon, et al., The Criminal Diaspora: The Spread of Transnational Organized Crime and How to Contain its Expansion (2013), p. 7, http://www.wilsoncenter.org/sites/default/files/CRIMINAL_DIASPORA%20%28Eng%20Summary%29_0.pdf.
  36. Colby Goodman & Michel Marizco, U.S. Firearms Trafficking to Mexico: New Data and Insights Illuminate Key Trends and Challenges (Sept. 2010), Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Mexico Institute, at p. 192, http://www.wilsoncenter.org/sites/default/files/Chapter%206-%20U.S.%20Firearms%20Trafficking%20to%20Mexico,%20New%20Data%20and%20Insights%20Illuminate%20Key%20Trends%20and%20Challenges.pdf.
  37. U.S. Department of the Treasury, (Dec. 2005), Tables 8 and 9, www.treasury.gov/resource-center/terrorist-illicit-finance/Documents/mlta.pdf, accessed on Aug. 8, 2013.
  38. U.S. Department of Homeland Security, United States of America-Mexico Bi-National Criminal Proceeds Study, (June 2010), http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/cne-criminalproceedsstudy.pdf, accessed on Feb. 7, 2014; U.S. Department of the Treasury, U.S. Money Laundering Threat Assessment (Dec. 2005), p. 33, www.treasury.gov/resource-center/terrorist-illicit-finance/Documents/mlta.pdf.
  39. Brien, et al., A Bilateral Study on Money Laundering in the United States and Mexico (May 2011), Columbia School of International and Public Affairs and Global Financial Integrity, ¶¶ 62-63, www.sipa.columbia.edu/academics/workshops/documents/RevisedReport/May24.pdf.
  40. Financial Action Task Force, www.Fatf-gafi.org.
  41. U.S. Department of Homeland Security, United States of America-Mexico Bi-National Criminal Proceeds Study, (June 2010), http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/cne-criminalproceedsstudy.pdf.
  42. CA Pen. Code, § 186.10.
  43. CA Health & Safety Code, §§ 11370.6, 11370.9.
  44. 31 U.S.C. § 5313, and regulations thereunder.
  45. 31 U.S.C. § 5324; CA Pen. Code, § 14166.
  46. 31 U.S.C. § 5324, subd. (a)(3).
  47. CA Pen. Code, § 14166.
  48. GDP is a measure of a country’s economic output as measured by the market value of all goods and services produced in a country. See U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Charting International Labor Comparisons (Sept. 2012), p. 13.
  49. U.S. Senate Caucus on International Narcotics Control, The Buck Stops Here: Improving U.S. Anti-Money Laundering Practices: 2013 Senate Report (Apr. 2013), p. 11.
  50. Center for Continuing Study of the California Economy, Numbers in the News (July 2013), at p. 1, http://www.ccsce.com/PDF/Numbers-July-2013-CA-Economy-Rankings-2012.pdf.
  51. U.S. Senate Caucus on International Narcotics Control, The Buck Stops Here: Improving U.S. Anti-Money Laundering Practices: 2013 Senate Report (Apr. 2013), p. 11, citing National Drug Intelligence data; Brien, et al., A Bilateral Study on Money Laundering in the United States and Mexico (May 2011), Columbia School of International and Public Affairs and Global Financial Integrity, p. 4.
  52. El Paso Intelligence Center, National Seizure System, Nationwide Bulk Cash Seizures, FOIA 14-00002-F (Jan. 1, 2008 – Dec. 31, 2012).
  53. U.S. Department of the Treasury, Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, Advisory: Newly Released Mexican Regulations Imposing Restrictions on Mexican Banks for Transactions in U.S. Currency (June 21, 2010), www.fincen.gov/statutes_regs/guidance/pdf/fin-2010-a007.pdf.
  54. Interview with Special Agent Ernesto Limon, California Department of Justice, California Anti-Money Laundering Alliance (Sept. 2013); Interview with New Mexico Money Laundering Task Force Investigator (Aug. 2013), Interview with Chula Vista Police Department, TEAM ONE, Task Force Investigator (Sept. 2013).
  55. Id.
  56. Southwest Border Anti-Money Laundering Alliance, About Us, http://www.swballiance.org/about-us/, accessed on Feb. 18, 2014.

Chapter 3

  1. National Gang Intelligence Center, National Gang Threat Assessment: Emerging Trends (2011), pp. 9, 15.
  2. Id. at pp. 9, 11, 15.
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Gang Homicides – Five U.S. Cities, 2003-2008 (Jan. 27, 2012), http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6103a2.htm?s_cid=mm6103a2_w.
  4. Id.
  5. California Department of Alcohol & Drug Programs, Facts and Figures On Alcohol and Other Drugs (Sept. 2006).
  6. Id.
  7. Office of National Drug Control Policy, National Southwest Border Counternarcotics Strategy (2013), p. 59, http://www.whitehouse.gov/ondcp/southwestborder.
  8. Juan Carlos Garzon, et al., The Criminal Diaspora: The Spread of Transnational Organized Crime and How to Contain its Expansion (2013), at p. 4, http:// www.wilsoncenter.org/sites/default/files/CRIMINAL_DIASPORA%20%28Eng%20Summary%29_0.pdf.
  9. June S. Beittel, Mexico’s Drug Trafficking Organizations: Source and Scope of the Violence (April 15, 2013), Congressional Research Service, at p. 23.
  10. Id. at p. 1.
  11. Office of the Attorney General, Attorney General Kamala D. Harris, Suspects Arrested in Murder-for-Hire Plot Commissioned by Mexican Drug Cartel (Feb. 17, 2011), https://oag.ca.gov/news/press-releases/suspects-arrested-murder-hire-plot-commissioned-mexican-drug-cartel.
  12. Daniel Borunda, Barrio Azteca threat targets law officers, El Paso Times (Mar. 25, 2010), http://www.elpasotimes.com/ci_14753458.
  13. CNN Wire Staff, Border Agent Shot By Bandits Who Target Immigrants, Union Chief Says (Dec. 15, 2010), http://www.cnn.com/2010/CRIME/12/15/arizona.border.agent.killed.
  14. U.S. House Committee on Homeland Security, A Line in the Sand: Confronting the Threat at the Southwest Border (2006), p. 14; National Gang Intelligence Center, National Gang Threat Assessment: Emerging Trends (2011), p. 27.
  15. Id. at p. 80.
  16. Federal Bureau of Investigation, Electronic Communication, 183-7396, Aryan Brotherhood Prison Gang, Information Concerning RICO, Non-LCN, OC Type, p.56, UNCLASSIFIED; Kevin Johnson, Drug Cartels Unite Rival Gangs to Work for Common Bad, USA Today (Mar. 16, 2010), http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/nation/2010-03-15-rival-gangs-drug-wars_N.htm, accessed on Feb. 6,2014.
  17. U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Customs and Border Protection, Office of Inspector General, CBP’s Strategy to Address Illicit Cross-Border Tunnels (Sept. 2012), p. 2, OIG-12-132, http://www.oig.dhs.gov/assets/Mgmt/2012/OIG_12-132_Sep12.pdf; U.S. House Committee on Homeland Security, A Line in the Sand: Confronting the Threat at the Southwest Border (2006), pp. 15-16, http://www.house.gov/sites/members/tx10_mccaul/pdf/Investigaions-Border-Report.pdf.
  18. Matt Isaacs, Twice Burned, SF Weekly (June 14, 2000), http://www.sfweekly.com/2000-06-14/news/twice-burned/full/, accessed on Feb. 7, 2014; U.S. Department of Justice, National Drug Intelligence Center, National Drug Threat Assessment 2011 (Aug. 2011), p. 27.
  19. Cal/Gang; National Gang Intelligence Center, National Gang Threat Assessment: Emerging Trends (2011), pp. 47-48.
  20. California County News, New FBI Stats: Two CA Counties Rank 1st and 3rd in the Nation for Most Gang Members (Oct. 25, 2011), http://californiacitynews.typepad.com/california_county_news/2011/10/new-fbi-stats-two-ca-counties-rank-1st-and-3rd-in-the-nation-for-most-gang-members.html, accessed on Feb. 6, 2014.
  21. National Gang Intelligence Center, National Gang Threat Assessment: Emerging Trends (2011), p. 15.
  22. Interview with Santa Clara County Sheriff’s Office Gang Expert (Oct. 22, 2013).

Chapter 4

  1. California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, Contraband Cell Phones in CDCR Prisons and Conservation Camps (April 2012) http://www.cdcr.ca.gov/Contraband-Cell-Phones/docs/Contraband-Cell-Phone-Fact-Sheet-April-2012.pdf.
  2. California State Assembly, Assembly Committee Report for Senate Bill 26 (Aug. 17, 2011), p. 5, http://www.leginfo.ca.gov/pub/11-12/bill/sen/sb_0001-0050/sb_26_cfa_20110816_163530_asm_comm.html.
  3. Moises Naim, Illicit: How Smugglers, Traffickers, and Copycats are Hijacking the Global Economy (2006), pp. 77-78.
  4. Id.
  5. Id. at p. 102.
  6. Michael Montgomery, How Imprisoned Mexican Mafia Leader Exerts Secret Control Over L.A. Street Gangs (Sept. 19, 2013), http://blogs.kqed.org/newsfix/2013/09/17/111570/secret-letter-from-mexican-mafia-gang-leader-to-la-street-gangs.
  7. Id.
  8. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, The Globalization of Crime: A Transnational Organized Crime Threat Assessment (2010), p. ii.
  9. Id. at pp. ii, 29.
  10. Id. at p. 29.
  11. Id. at p. ii.
  12. Id.
  13. Moises Naim, Illicit: How Smugglers, Traffickers, and Copycats are Hijacking the Global Economy (2006), p. 75.
  14. Jerome P. Bjelopera & Kristen M. Finklea, Organized Crime: An Evolving Challenge for U.S. Law Enforcement, Congressional Research Service (Jan. 6, 2012), p. 3.
  15. U.S. Department of Justice, National Drug Intelligence Center, National Drug Threat Assessment 2010 (Feb. 2010), pp. 21, 23, http://www.justice.gov/archive/ndic/pubs38/38661/movement.htm, accessed on Feb. 8, 2014.
  16. Cynthia Lambery, Panga Boats Running Drugs from Mexico are Pushing North, Landing on SLO County Beaches, The Tribune (Dec. 1, 2012), http://www.sanluisobispo.com/2012/12/01/2313653/panga-boats-runningdrugs-from.html, accessed on Feb. 8, 2014.
  17. Jeanette Steele, Coast Guard Touts Drug Busts at Sea, San Diego Union-Tribune (June 7, 2013), http://www.utsandiego.com/news/2013/Jun/07/coast-guard-drug-bust-sea-san-diego/, accessed on Aug. 9, 2013; Cynthia Lambery, Panga Boats Running Drugs from Mexico are Pushing North, Landing on SLO County Beaches, The Tribune (Dec. 1, 2012), http://www.sanluisobispo.com/2012/12/01/2313653/panga-boats-running-drugs-from.html, accessed on Aug. 9, 2013.
  18. El Paso Intelligence Center, National Seizure System, 20080101-20121231 California-Specific Narcotics Data Land Crossings Only, UNCLASSIFIED (Sept. 2013).
  19. Id.; CBS News, Sinaloa Cartel Takes to the High Seas (Dec. 12, 2012).
  20. Stephen Baxter, Drug Smuggling Boat Wrecks, 80 Pounds of Pot Found North of Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz Sentinel (Oct. 1, 2013), http://www.mercurynews.com/central-coast/ci_24213384/drug-smuggling-boat-wrecks-80-pounds-potfound?source=rss.
  21. Id.
  22. Cal Coast News, Panga Boart Beaches Near San Simeon Campground (Sept. 11, 2013), http://calcoastnews.com/2013/09/panga-boat-beaches-near-sansimeon-campground/.
  23. Santa Barbara County Sheriff’s Department, Special Investigations Bureau, Transnational Organized Crime (Sept. 19, 2013).
  24. Id.
  25. Id.
  26. Interview with Detective from Santa Barbara County Sheriff’s Office (Oct. 15, 2013).
  27. Santa Barbara County Sheriff’s Office, Special Investigations Bureau, Transnational Organized Crime (Sept. 19, 2013).
  28. Susan Shroder, Panga Yields Nearly $1.8 million in Pot (Feb. 5, 2013), http://www.utsandiego.com/news/2013/Feb/05/about-one-point-eight-million-in-pot-on-panga/.
  29. U.S. Coast Guard News Release, Chief Petty Officer Terrell Horne Dies During Law Enforcement Mission (Dec. 3, 2010), http://www.uscgnews.com/go/doc/4007/1624215/PHOTOS-AVAILABLE-Chief-Petty-Officer-Terrell-Horne-diesduring-law-enforcement-mission.
  30. Jennifer Jensen, U.S. Coast Guard Intercepts 31 Bales of Marijuana After High-Speed Chase on the Ocean, ABC10 News (Oct. 8, 2013), http://www.10news.com/news/us-coast-guard-intercepts-31-bales-of-marijuana-after-high-speed-chase-on-the-ocean-10072013.
  31. White House, Office of National Drug Control Policy, National Southwest Border Counternarcotics Strategy (2013), p. 69, http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/ondcp/policy-and-research/southwest_border_strategy_2013.pdf.
  32. U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Customs and Border Protection, Office of Inspector General, CBP’s Strategy to Address Illicit Cross-Border Tunnels (Sept. 2012), p. 2, OIG-12-132, http://www.oig.dhs.gov/assets/Mgmt/2012/OIG_12-132_Sep12.pdf.
  33. Id.
  34. Id. at pp. 2-3.
  35. Id. at p. 3.
  36. Jerome Bjelopera & Kristin Finklea, Organized Crime: An Evolving Challenge for U.S. Law Enforcement (January 2012), Congressional Research Service, p. 18, http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R41547.pdf, accessed on Aug. 9, 2013; Office of National Drug Control Policy, National Southwest Border Counternarcotics Strategy (2013), p. 69, http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/ondcp/policy-and-research/southwest_border_strategy_2013.pdf.
  37. U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Customs and Border Protection, Office of Inspector General, CBP’s Strategy to Address Illicit Cross-Border Tunnels (Sept. 2012), p. 2, OIG-12-132, http://www.oig.dhs.gov/assets/Mgmt/2012/OIG_12-132_Sep12.pdf.
  38. Associated Press, Ultralight Packed with Pot Found in S. Cal Desert, Contra Costa Times (Aug. 9, 2013), http://www.contracostatimes.com/california/ci_23972609/ultralight-packed-pot-found-s-cal-desert, accessed on Sept. 20, 2013.
  39. California Department of Finance, Foreign Trade Through California Ports, 1970-2012, http://www.dof.ca.gov/html/fs_data/latestecondata/documents/BBFORTRD_000.xls, accessed on Aug. 10, 2013.
  40. Id.
  41. Id.
  42. Jennifer Shasky Calvery, Chief, Asset Forfeiture and Money Laundering Section, Criminal Division, U.S. Department of Justice, Combating Transnational Organized Crime: International Money Laundering as a Threat to our Financial Systems (Feb. 8, 2012).
  43. Financial Action Task Force - Groupe d’Action Financière, Best Practices on Trade Based Money Laundering (June 2008), p. 1.
  44. U.S. Senate Caucus on International Narcotics Control, The Buck Stops Here: Improving U.S. Anti-Money Laundering Practices: 2013 Senate Report (Apr. 2013), p. 19.
  45. U.S. v. Angel Toy Corporation, et al., No. 2:10-CR-00718 (C.D. Cal. 2010); U.S. v. Woody Toys, Inc., et al., No. 2:12-CR-00329 (C.D. Cal. 2012); U.S. v. Peace and Rich, et al. (Silk Flower Case), No. 2:13-CR-00107 (C.D. Cal. 2013).
  46. Interviews with Los Angeles Interagency Metropolitan Police Apprehension Crime Taskforce (LA IMPACT) officials and Assistant U.S. Attorney, Central District of California, Los Angeles (June-July 2013).

Chapter 5

  1. National White Collar Crime Center, 2012 Internet Crime Report, p. 8.
  2. Id. at p. 24.
  3. Francisco Gomez, Pirateria, el Otro Frente del Narco, El Universal (Mar. 1, 2009), http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/nacion/166099.html, accessed on Jan. 2, 2014.
  4. The White House, Strategy To Combat Transnational Organized Crime (July 2011), p. 7.
  5. Privacy Rights Clearinghouse, Chronology of Data Breaches (Dec. 31, 2013), https://www.privacyrights.org/data-breach. The list compiled by Privacy Rights Clearinghouse does not purport to be a complete listing of all breaches in a given year. Rather, it includes only breaches that have been reported in the news media, on government websites, and on blogs. For this reason, the list likely understates the actual number of breaches. For more information, please see: https://www.privacyrights.org/data-breach-FAQ.
  6. California Department of Justice, Attorney General’s Data Breach Report 2012, p. 7.
  7. Office of the Attorney General, Identity Theft, http://oag.ca.gov/idtheft (reporting statistics from Javelin Strategy and Research, 2012 Identity Fraud Report).
  8. Privacy Rights Clearinghouse, Chronology of Data Breaches (Dec. 31, 2013), https://www.privacyrights.org/data-breach.
  9. Id.; Office of the Attorney General, Identity Theft, http://oag.ca.gov/idtheft (reporting statistics from Javelin Strategy and Research, 2012 Identity Fraud Report).
  10. Clay Wilson, Botnets, Cybercrime, and Cyberterrorism: Vulnerabilities and Policy Issues for Congress, Congressional Research Service (2008), p. 9.
  11. Jason Franklin, et al., An Inquiry Into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Internet Miscreants (2007), p. 1, Clay Wilson, Botnets, Cybercrime, and Cyberterrorism: Vulnerabilities and Policy Issues for Congress, Congressional Research Service (2008), p. 9.
  12. Federal Bureau of Investigation, APT Actors Send Spear-Phishing Email with Missing Children Theme, Private Sector Advisory (Aug. 9, 2013).
  13. Federal Bureau of Investigation, Cyber Banking Fraud, news release (Oct. 1, 2010); Complaint at p. 22, Microsoft Corp. v. John Does 1–82, No. 3:13-cv-319 (W.D.N.C. May 29, 2013).
  14. Complaint at p. 23, Microsoft Corp. v. John Does 1–82, No. 3:13-cv-319 (W.D.N.C. May 29, 2013).
  15. Federal Bureau of Investigation, Fraud and Organized Crime Intersect, news release (Oct. 13, 2010); Lizette Alvarez, With Personal Data in Hand, Thieves File Early and Often, New York Times (May 26, 2012).
  16. Complaint at p. 6, Microsoft Corp. v. John Does 1–82, No. 3:13-cv-319 (W.D.N.C. May 29, 2013).
  17. Clay Wilson, Botnets, Cybercrime, and Cyberterrorism: Vulnerabilities and Policy Issues for Congress, Congressional Research Service (2008), p. 5.
  18. Id.
  19. Id.
  20. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, The Globalization of Crime: A Transnational Organized Crime Threat Assessment (2010) p. 204.
  21. Id.
  22. Jerome P. Bjelopera & Kristin M. Finklea, Organized Crime: An Evolving Challenge for U.S. Law Enforcement, Congressional Research Service (2012), p. 12.
  23. U.S. Attorney’s Office, Central District of California, Five Domestic Defendants Linked to International Computer Hacking Ring Conspiracy Guilty of Federal Fraud Charges, news release (Mar. 26, 2011).
  24. Indictment at pp. 9–10, U.S. v. Lucas et al., No. CR09-01005 (C.D. Cal. Sept. 30, 2009).
  25. Federal Bureau of Investigation, One Hundred Linked to International Computer Hacking Ring Charged by United States and Egypt in Operation Phish Phry, news release (Oct. 7, 2009).
  26. Indictment at pp. 12–13, United States v. Drinkman et al., No. 1:09-cr-00626 (D.N.J. 2009).
  27. Id. at pp. 13–14.
  28. Id. at p. 16.
  29. Nathaniel Popper & Somini Sengupta, U.S. Says Ring Stole 160 Million Credit Card Numbers, New York Times (July 25, 2013).
  30. U.S. Attorney’s Office, Central District of California, Armenian Power Organized Crime Group Targeted in Federal Indictments That Allege Racketeering Offenses, Including Bank Fraud Schemes, Kidnappings, and Drug Trafficking, news release (Feb. 16, 2011).
  31. Federal Bureau of Investigation, Fraud and Organized Crime Intersect, news release (Oct. 13, 2010).
  32. Id.
  33. Id.
  34. Id.
  35. Verizon, 2013 Data Breach Investigations Report, pp. 20–21.
  36. Id. at pp. 15, 21–22.
  37. Gregory F. Treverton et al., Film Piracy, Organized Crime, and Terrorism (RAND 2009), p. 28; see also Rick Orlov, Gangs Turning to Pirated DVDs, CDs To Cash In, Daily News (July 7, 2009), p. A3.
  38. Joshua Philipp, Cybercrime the New Face of Organized Crime, Says Manhattan DA, Epoch Times (May 14, 2013); International Mass-Marketing Fraud Working Group, Mass-Marketing Fraud: A Threat Assessment (June 2010), p. 13.
  39. National Intellectual Property Rights Coordination Center, Intellectual Property Rights Violations: A Report on Threats to United States Interests at Home and Abroad (Nov. 2011), p. v; United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (“UNICRI”), Confiscation of the Proceeds of IP Crime (2013), p. 9.
  40. International Mass-Marketing Fraud Working Group, Mass-Marketing Fraud: A Threat Assessment (June 2010), p. 12.
  41. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, The Globalization of Crime: A Transnational Organized Crime Threat Assessment (2010), pp. 203-204.
  42. Max Goncharov, Russian Underground 101, Trend Micro Incorporated (2012), p. 18.
  43. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, The Globalization of Crime: A Transnational Organized Crime Threat Assessment (2010), p. 204.
  44. Max Goncharov, Russian Underground 101, Trend Micro Incorporated (2012), p. 8.
  45. Complaint at p. 8, Microsoft Corp. v. John Does 1–82, No. 3:13-cv-319 (W.D.N.C. May 29, 2013).
  46. Id.
  47. Id. at p. 10.
  48. Id. at pp. 8-9.
  49. Jeremy Kirk, Advance Fee Fraud Scams Rise Dramatically in 2009, Compuworld (Jan. 28, 2009).
  50. National White Collar Crime Center, 2012 Internet Crime Report, p. 8.
  51. Ross Anderson, et al., Measuring the Cost of Cybercrime (2012), p. 15.
  52. The connection to Nigeria is so frequent, in fact, that this type of scam is also known as a “419 fraud” after the applicable section in the Nigerian criminal code.
  53. Ross Anderson et al., Measuring the Cost of Cybercrime (2012), pp. 15–16.
  54. International Mass-Marketing Fraud Working Group, Mass-Marketing Fraud: A Threat Assessment (June 2010), p. 16
  55. Blaise J. Bergiel, et al., Internet Cross Border Crime: A Growing Problem, Journal of Website Promotion, vol. 3, (2008), p. 135.
  56. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, The Globalization of Crime: A Transnational Organized Crime Threat Assessment (2010), p. 204.
  57. International Mass-Marketing Fraud Working Group, Mass-Marketing Fraud: A Threat Assessment (June 2010), p. 16; UNODC, The Globalization of Crime: A Transnational Organized Crime Threat Assessment (2010), p. 204.
  58. U.S. Attorney’s Office, District of New Jersey, Organizer of International Securities Fraud Ring Sentenced to Prison for Using Hackers to Falsely Inflate Stock Prices, news release (May 13, 2013).
  59. National White Collar Crime Center, 2012 Internet Crime Report, p. 8.
  60. Id. at pp. 14–15.
  61. Id. at p. 24.
  62. International Mass-Marketing Fraud Working Group, Mass-Marketing Fraud: A Threat Assessment (June 2010) pp. 4, 12, 14.
  63. Indictment at pp. 2-3, United States v. Butoi, et al., No. 1:12-cr-00785 (E.D.N.Y. Jan. 9, 2013); Federal Bureau of Investigation, Organized Romanian Criminal Groups Targeted by DOJ and Romanian Law Enforcement, news release (July 15, 2011).
  64. Id.
  65. Id.
  66. Federal Bureau of Investigation, Consumer Alert: Online Rental Ads Could Be Phony (July 29, 2009), http://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/2009/july/housingscam_072909.
  67. International Mass-Marketing Fraud Working Group, Mass-Marketing Fraud: A Threat Assessment (June 2010), p. 15.
  68. U.S. Attorney’s Office, Southern District of New York, Manhattan U.S. Attorney Announces Extradition of Four Israeli Defendants Charged in Multi-Million-Dollar Phony 'Lottery Prize' Schemes, news release (Jan. 4, 2012).
  69. UNICRI, Confiscation of the Proceeds of IP Crime (2013), pp. 9, 13.
  70. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, The Globalization of Crime: A Transnational Organized Crime Threat Assessment (2010), p. 176; UNICRI, Confiscation of the Proceeds of IP Crime (2013), p. 11.
  71. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, The Globalization of Crime: A Transnational Organized Crime Threat Assessment (2010), p. 180.
  72. Damon McCoy, et al., PharmaLeaks: Understanding the Business of Online Pharmaceutical Affiliate Programs (2012) p. 2.
  73. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, The Globalization of Crime: A Transnational Organized Crime Threat Assessment (2010), p. 184.]
  74. David Price, NetNames, Sizing the Piracy Universe (Sept. 2013), www.copyrightalliance.org/sites/default/files/2013-netnames-piracy.pdf.
  75. Id.
  76. Letter to Victoria A. Espinel from the Motion Picture Association of America, et al. (Aug. 10, 2012), pp. 1–2.
  77. National Intellectual Property Rights Center, Intellectual Property Rights Violations: A Report on Threats to United States Interests at Home and Abroad (Nov. 2011), p. 29.
  78. Letter to Stan McCoy from Motion Picture Association of America, Inc. (Sept. 14, 2012), p. 2.
  79. William Kerr & Chad Moutray, Economic Impact of Global Software Theft on U.S. Manufacturing and Competitiveness (Jan. 30, 2014), p. 5.
  80. Federal Bureau of Investigation, Pirated Software May Contain Malware, Consumer Alert (Aug. 1, 2013); National Intellectual Property Rights Center, Intellectual Property Rights Violations: A Report on Threats to United States Interests at Home and Abroad (Nov. 2011), p. 27.
  81. Paula Greve, Digital Music and Movies Report: The True Cost of Free Entertainment (2010) p. 10.
  82. Money Laundering Threat Assessment Working Group, U.S. Money Laundering Threat Assessment (Dec. 2005), p. 20.
  83. U.S. Senate Caucus on International Narcotics Control, The Buck Stops Here: Improving U.S. Anti-Money Laundering Practices: 2013 Senate Report (Apr. 2013), pp. 27-28, Jennifer Shasky Calvery, Chief, Asset Forfeiture and Money Laundering Section, Criminal Division, U.S. Department of Justice, Combating Transnational Organized Crime: International Money Laundering as a Threat to our Financial Systems (Feb. 8, 2012), p. 8.
  84. U.S. Department of Justice, National Drug Intelligence Center, National Drug Threat Assessment 2009, p. 50.
  85. Id.
  86. Statement of Jennifer Shasky Calvery before the U.S. Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs (Nov. 19, 2013), p. 2.
  87. Prepared Testimony of Edward Lowery III before the U.S. Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs (Nov. 18, 2013), p. 3.
  88. Id.
  89. Id.
  90. Statement of the Hon. Mythili Raman before the U.S. Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs (Nov. 18, 2013), p. 4.
  91. Prepared Testimony of Edward Lowery III before the U.S. Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs (Nov. 18, 2013), p. 3.
  92. U.S. v. Liberty Reserve S.A, et al., (S.D.N.Y. 2013), Case No. 13 CRIM 368.
  93. Id. at ¶¶9 and 21.
  94. Id. at ¶ 20.
  95. Id.
  96. Id. at ¶ 10.
  97. Id.
  98. Id. at ¶43.
  99. Statement of the Hon. Mythili Raman before the U.S. Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs (Nov. 18, 2013), p. 4.
  100. Sealed Complaint at p. 6, United States v. Ulbricht (S.D.N.Y. Sept. 27, 2013).
  101. David Segal, Eagle Scout. Idealist. Drug Trafficker?, New York Times (Jan. 18, 2014).
  102. Stuart Pfeifer, Shan Li, & Walter Hamilton, End of Silk Road for Drug Users as FBI Shuts Down Illicit Website, Los Angeles Times (Oct. 2, 2013).
  103. U.S. Attorney’s Office, Southern District of New York, Manhattan U.S. Attorney Announces Charges Against Bitcoin Exchangers, Including CEO of Bitcoin Exchange Company, for Scheme to Sell and Launder over $1 Million in Bitcoins Related to Silk Road Drug Trafficking, news release (Jan. 27, 2014).

Chapter 6

  1. 21 U.S.C. § 848
  2. Garrett v. United States (1985) 471 U.S. 773, 781.
  3. Steven Burnholtz, et al., International Extradition in Drug Cases, 10 N.C. J. Int’l L. & Com. Reg. 353, 358 (1985); see also 21 U.S.C. § 848, subd. (a)(1)(c).
  4. 21 U.S.C. §§ 848, 853.
  5. Md. Criminal Law Ann. § 5-607, subd. (b)(1); N.J. Stat. § 2C:35-3 (2013).
  6. Interview with Commander of the Fresno Special Operations Unit (Sept. 2013).
  7. Id.
  8. People v. Green (2004) 125 Cal.App.4th 360, 374, fn. 9 (["[Penal Code s]ection 186.11 gives the People no way to prevent the dissipation of assets before a complaint or indictment has been filed."]).
  9. 18 U.S.C. § 1963, subd. (d).
  10. 18 U.S.C. § 1963, subd. (d)(2).
  11. 18 U.S.C. § 1963, subd. (d)(l)(B)(iii).
  12. 31 U.S.C. § 5313, and regulations thereunder.
  13. 31 U.S.C. § 5324.
  14. 31 U.S.C. § 5324, subd. (a)(3).
  15. CA Pen. Code, § 14166
  16. Id.
  17. Interview with CAMLA Task Force Commander, SAS, Ernesto Limon, CA DOJ (Sept. 2013).
  18. Id.
  19. FinCEN News Release (Oct. 24, 2013), http://www.fincen.gov/news_room/nr/pdf/20131024.pdf.
  20. Statement of Jennifer Shasky Calvery, Director, Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, Upon Signing a Memorandum of Understanding with Mexico’s National Banking and Securities Commission, Oct. 24, 2013, http://fincen.gov/pdf/Statement%20for%20MOU%20signing%20with%20CNBV.pdf.
  21. Celina B. Realuyo, It’s All About the Money: Advancing Anti-Money Laundering Efforts in the U.S. and Mexico to Combat Transnational Organized Crime, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars Mexico Institute (May 2012), p. 27.