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BFS Drug Summaries

  1. SS
    EPHEDRINE is a mild central nervous system stimulant. It is used as a nasal decongestant and bronchodilator and is present in various over-the-counter cold and allergy medications. It is sometimes found in biological samples as the result of the use of illicitly produced methamphetamine.
  2. DS
    NORPROPOXYPHENE is an active metabolite of propoxyphene, a mildly effective narcotic analgesic (pain reliever). It may cause central nervous system depressant effects.
  3. DS
    HYDROCODONE (Vicodin®) is a semisynthetic narcotic analgesic prescribed as a pain reliever and cough suppressant. It may cause central nervous system depressant effects.
  4. DS
    CHLORPHENIRAMINE is an over-the-counter antihistamine found in many cold and allergy medications. It may cause central nervous system depressant effects.
  5. MS
    DELTA-9-TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL (THC) is the principle psychoactive constituent of marijuana. When smoked, it is rapidly distributed to various tissues and disappears quickly from the blood. If found, (possible in blood only), it indicates either recent use or chronic daily use of marijuana.
  6. MS
    11-NOR-9-CARBOXY-DELTA-9-TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL is the primary metabolite of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol which is the principle psychoactive constituent of marijuana. It is an inactive metabolite, and may be detected in blood and urine for several days or weeks depending upon the subject's frequency of use.
  7. DS
    PHENYTOIN (Dilantin®, diphenylhydantoin) is an anticonvulsant drug used in the treatment of seizure disorders. It may cause central nervous system depressant effects.
  8. DS
    OXYCODONE (ingredient of Percodan®) is a semisynthetic narcotic analgesic with similar potency and properties as morphine. It may cause central nervous system depressant effects.
  9. DS
    TOLUENE is an aromatic solvent present in numerous paints, thinners, and glues. Symptoms of intoxication are similar to ethyl alcohol and often a chemical odor is present in the breath. It may cause central nervous system depressant effects.
  10. DS
    CARISOPRODOL (Soma©) is a rapidly acting muscle relaxant available in prescription form. It may cause central nervous system depressant effects.
  11. DS
    ETHCHLORVYNOL is used in the treatment of insomnia to induce sleep. It may cause central nervous system depressant effects.
  12. DS
    THIORIDAZINE (Mellaril®) belongs to the phenothiazine class of antipsychotic tranquilizers. It may cause central nervous system depressant effects.
  13. ACETAMINOPHEN (Tylenol®) is a non-narcotic analgesic which at the recommended dose has negligible side effects.
  14. TRIHEXYLPHENIDYL (Artane®) is used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Adverse reactions to this drug may include blurring of vision, dizziness, nausea, and nervousness. It is noted in the literature that this type of drug may impair the mental and/or physical abilities required for the performance of potentially hazardous tasks, such as driving a vehicle or operating machinery.
  15. CARBROMAL is an organic bromide which exerts a mild, short-acting sedative effect. At the indicated dosage, carbromal produces a calming but non-hypnotic effect. However, at larger dosage, drowsiness may be seen.
  16. DS
    CARBAMAZEPINE is structurally related to the tricyclic antidepressants and is currently used as an anticonvulsant drug. It may cause central nervous system depressant effects.
  17. DS
    PRIMIDONE is a derivative of phenobarbital, frequently used for the treatment of grand mal seizures. It may cause central nervous system depressant effects.
  18. DS
    PENTAZOCINE (Talwin®) is a synthetic narcotic analgesic. It may cause central nervous system depressant effects.
  19. DS
    FLURAZEPAM (Dalmane®) is a member of the benzodiazepine class of drugs and is used for the induction of sleep. Due to its rapid metabolism, flurazepam is normally not observed in the blood, rather as a pharmacologically active metabolite, n-desalkylflurazepam. It may cause central nervous system depressant effects.
  20. DS
    PROMETHAZINE is a phenothiazine derivative that is widely used as an antihistamine, antiemetic and sedative. It may cause central nervous system depressant effects.
  21. PS
    3,4-METHYLENEDIOXYAMPHETAMINE (MDA) is a psychoactive amphetamine derivative with central nervous system stimulating properties and may be hallucinogenic.
  22. DS
    HYDROXYZINE, a sedative agent with antihistaminic properties, is used in the treatment of anxiety and tension. It may cause central nervous system depressant effects.
  23. DS
    N-DESALKYLFLURAZEPAM is a pharmacologically active metabolite of flurazepam (Dalmane®) which is often prescribed for the induction of sleep. It may cause central nervous system depressant effects.
  24. DS
    DIPHENHYDRAMINE is an antihistamine available in many over-the-counter cold, allergy and motion sickness medications. It may cause central nervous system depressant effects.
  25. DS
    DOXEPIN (Sinequan®) is a tricyclic antidepressant drug used in the treatment of depression and/or anxiety. It may cause central nervous system depressant effects.
  26. DS
    FENTANYL (Sublimaze®) is a synthetic narcotic analgesic of high potency. It is used as a surgical anesthetic and is sometimes found in samples of illicit synthetic heroin (china white). It may cause central nervous system depressant effects.
  27. METHYLPHENIDATE (Ritalin®) is a drug used in the treatment of depression, narcolepsy, and childhood hyperkinesis. Overdosage can cause drowsiness or hyperactivity.
  28. DS
    TEMAZEPAM is a member of the benzodiazepine class of drugs. It is also found as a metabolite of a number of other valium-type drugs. It is used as a hypnotic to induce sleep. It may cause central nervous system depressant effects.
  29. DS
    6-MONOACETYL MORPHINE is the primary metabolite of heroin. Its presence in biological samples is indicative of heroin use.
  30. DS
    DIHYDROCODEINE (Synalgos®) is a narcotic analgesic. It may cause central nervous system depressant effects.
  31. DS
    DOXYLAMINE is an antihistamine contained in many over-the-counter cold preparations. It may cause central nervous system depressant effects.
  32. DS
    DEXTROMETHORPHAN is a non-narcotic, over-the-counter medication which is chemically related to codeine. It is found in several over-the-counter preparations which are used as cough suppressants. It may cause central nervous system depressant effects.
  33. DS
    CYCLOBENZAPRINE (Flexeril®) is a skeletal muscle relaxant. It may cause central nervous system depressant effects.
  34. DS
    METHYPRYLON is a sedative/hypnotic used in the treatment of insomnia. It may cause central nervous system depressant effects.
  35. BENZTROPINE is a drug used in the treatment of Parkinsonism. Medical literature warns that benztropine may impair mental and/or physical abilities required for performance of hazardous tasks, such as driving a motor vehicle.
  36. SS
    METHYLENEDIOXYMETHAMPHETAMINE (MDMA, XTC, Ectasy, Adam) is a psychoactive amphetamine derivative with central nervous system stimulating properties and may be hallucinogenic.
  37. PROCAINE (Novacain®) is a local anesthetic used for nerve block and spinal anesthesia.
  38. ORPHENADRINE (Norflex®, Disipal®, Norgesic®) is an anticholinergic agent used in treatment of Parkinsonism.
  39. DS
    ALPRAZOLAM (Xanax®) is related to the benzodiazepine class of drugs. It is prescribed for management of anxiety disorders. It may cause central nervous system depressant effects.
  40. KETAMINE (Ketalar®) is a rapid-acting veterinary anesthetic closely related to  phencyclidine (PCP).
  41. DS
    BROMPHENIRAMINE is an antihistamine available as an over-the-counter drug. It may cause central nervous system depressant effects.
  42. CHLORPROPAMIDE (Diabinase®) is an oral blood-glucose-lowering drug of the sulfonylurea class. It appears to lower the blood glucose acutely by stimulating the release of insulin. Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) is likely to occur when alcohol is ingested.
  43. ATROPINE is a drug used primarily for its antispasmotic action on involuntary muscles and for diminishing secretions.
  44. NAPROXEN is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug with analgesic and antipyretic properties.
  45. DS
    CHLORPROMAZINE (Thorazine®) is a potent anti-psychotic drug. It may cause central nervous system depressant effects.
  46. DS
    TRIAZOLAM (Halcion®) is similar to benzodiazepine-type drugs and is used for the induction of sleep. It may cause central nervous system depressant effects.
  47. SS
    BENZOYLECGONINE is a hydrolysis product of cocaine without pharmacological activity. Its presence in a biological sample is an indication of cocaine use.
  48. SS
    ECGONINE METHYL ESTER is an enzymatically produced metabolite of cocaine with no apparent pharmacological activity. Its presence in a biological sample is an indication of cocaine use.
  49. FLUOXETINE (Prozac®) is a non-tricyclic, non-tetracyclic antidepressant.
  50. NORFLUOXETINE is a psychoactive metabolite of fluoxetine (Prozac®) a non-tricyclic, non-tetracyclic antidepressant.
  51. DS
    CLONAZEPAM (Klonopin®) is a benzodiazepine derivative used primarily for seizure disorders. It may cause central nervous system depressant effects.
  52. DS
    LORAZEPAM (Ativan®) is an antianxiety agent similar to diazepam (Valium®). It may cause central nervous system depressant effects.
  53. DS
    LEVORPHANOL is a highly potent synthetic analgesic with properties and actions similar to those of morphine. It may cause central nervous system depressant effects.
  54. PS
    LYSERGIC ACID DIETHYLAMIDE (LSD) is a potent psychedelic drug.
  55. DS
    CLOMIPRAMINE (Anafranil®) is a tricyclic antidepressant used primarily in the treatment of obsessive and compulsive behavior. It may cause central nervous system depressant effects.
  56. DS
    ALPHA-HYDROXYALPRAZOLAM is an active metabolite of the anti-anxiety benzodiazepine drug alprazolam (Xanax®). It may cause central nervous system depressant effects.
  57. DS
    DESIPRAMINE is a tricyclic antidepressant used for the treatment of depression. It may cause central nervous system depressant effects.
  58. DS
    TRAZODONE (Desyrel®) is an antidepressant chemically distinct from other antidepressants. It may cause central nervous system depressant effects.
  59. THEOPHYLLINE is a central nervous system stimulant similar to caffeine. It is prescribed primarily for control of bronchial asthma.
  60. DS
    HALOPERIDOL is used in the treatment of psychotic disorders. It may cause central nervous system depressant effects.
  61. DS
    MIDAZOLAM (Versed®) is a member of the benzodiazepine class of drugs. It is only available for presurgical sedation in the injectable form.
  62. SS
    PHENDIMETRAZINE is an anorexic drug (appetite suppressant). It possesses CNS stimulant properties like amphetamine-type drugs.
  63. METHOTRIMEPRAZINE (Levoprome®) is an antipsychotic phenothiazine derivative similar to chlorpromazine (Thorazine®). When prescribed in this country, however, it is used as an analgesic. It is a central nervous system depressant.
  64. PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE is an over-the counter cold medication used as a nasal decongestant and bronchodilator. It is commonly found in combination with antihistamines and analgesics.
  65. VALPROIC ACID is a carboxylic acid derivative used as an anticonvulsant. Possible side effects include nausea, vomiting, sedation, and weakness.
  66. COCAETHYLENE is enzymatically produced when cocaine and ethanol are consumed and is pharmacologically active. Its presence in a biological sample is an indication of cocaine use.
  67. DESMETHYLSERTRALINE is a metabolite of sertraline (Zoloft®), a prescription antidepressant.  No data is available regarding any impairing effects of this drug.
  68. DS
    GAMMA-HYDROXYBUTYRATE (GHB) is both an endogenous constituent in mammalian brains, found in very low concentrations as a neurotransmitter metabolite, and an agent which when given in large doses acts as a central nervous system depressant.  It can cause dizziness, nausea, vomiting, confusion, seizures, respiratory depression, intense drowsiness, unconsciousness and coma.  GHB has been investigated as an anesthetic and hypnotic agent.
  69. BUSIPRON (Buspar®) is a non-benzodiazepine antianxiolytic and may cause dizziness.
  70. TRAMADOL is a synthetic narcotic analgesic. It may cause central nervous system depressant effects.
  71. DS
    DIAZEPAM (Valium®) is a benzodiazepine-type drug prescribed for its antianxiety, anticonvulsant and muscle relaxing properties. It may cause central nervous system depressant effects.
  72. DS
    NORDIAZEPAM is an active metabolite of several benzodiazepines including diazepam (Valium®). It may cause central nervous system depressant effect.
  73. PHENCYCLIDINE (PCP, angel dust) is a frequently abused street drug which is classified as a dissociative anesthetic. It produces a spectrum of effects including hallucinations, delirium, disorientation, agitation, muscle rigidity, ataxia, nystagmus, seizures, and stupor.
  74. SS
    PHENTERMINE is prescribed as an anorexic agent (appetite suppressant), It may cause central nervous system stimulant effects.
  75. DS
    MEPERIDINE (Demerol®) is a synthetic narcotic analgesic drug similar in action to morphine. It may cause central nervous system depressant effects.
  76. DS
    CHLORDIAZEPOXIDE (Librium®) is a member of the benzodiazepine class of drugs. It is prescribed as an antianxiety drug. It may cause central nervous system depressant effects.
  77. DS
    CODEINE is a narcotic analgesic drug prescribed for pain relief and relief from coughing. It may cause central nervous system depressant effects.
  78. DS
    BARBITURATES are potent central nervous system depressant drugs. Today they are rarely prescribed for sleep, but are used as muscle relaxants, anxiolytics and anticonvulsants. An extreme synergistic CNS depression effect is possible when used in combination with ethyl alcohol.
  79. DS
    METHAQUALONE is a sedative/hypnotic that was removed from the U.S. market in 1984 due to its extensive misuse. It may cause central nervous system depressant effects.
  80. SS
    COCAINE is the most potent of the naturally-occurring central nervous system stimulants with an extremely high potential for abuse. It is occasionally used as a short-acting local anesthetic by topical application in dental and ophthalmological procedures.
  81. DS
    PROPOXYPHENE (Darvon®) is a mildly effective analgesic (pain killer). It may cause central nervous system depressant effects.
  82. DS
    IMIPRAMINE (and its primary active metabolites desipramine, which may account for much of the therapeutic effectiveness of the drug) is a tricyclic antidepressant used for the treatment of depression. It may cause central nervous system depressant effects.
  83. DS
    PHENOBARBITAL is a CNS depressant belonging to the barbiturate drug class and used for its sedative/hypnotic and anticonvulsant properties. It may cause central nervous system depressant effects.
  84. DS
    MEPROBAMATE is an antianxiety, sedative/hypnotic and skeletal muscle relaxant drug. It may cause central nervous system depressant effects.
  85. SS
    METHAMPHETAMINE (speed, crank, ice) is a potent central nervous system stimulant drug with an extremely high potential for abuse.
  86. DS
    METHADONE is a synthetic narcotic analgesic used by opiate detoxification clinics. It may cause central nervous system depressant effects.
  87. SS
    PHENMETRAZINE is currently used as an anorexic drug (appetite suppressant). It possesses CNS stimulant properties like amphetamine type drugs.
  88. DS
    OXAZEPAM (Serax®) is an antianxiety agent in the benzodiazepine class of drugs. It is also found as an active metabolite of several other benzodiazepines. It may cause central nervous system depressant effects.
  89. SS
    AMPHETAMINE is an anorexic agent (appetite suppressant) that has a high potential for abuse due to its central nervous system stimulant properties. It is often found in blood and urine as a metabolite of methamphetamine.
  90. DS
    MORPHINE is a narcotic analgesic pain reliever. It is most often found as an active metabolite of various opiate drugs such as codeine or heroin. It may cause central nervous system depressant effects.
  91. DS
    TRIFLUOPERAZINE (Stelazine®) belongs to the phenothiazine class of antipsychotic tranquilizers. It may cause central nervous system depressant effects.
  92. DS
    AMITRIPTYLINE (and its primary active metabolite, nortriptyline) is a tricyclic antidepressant drug used in the treatment of depression. It may cause central nervous system depressant effects.
  93. DS
    BUTALBITAL (ingredient of Fiorinal®) is a short to intermediate-acting barbiturate commonly compounded with aspirin, caffeine and occasionally codeine usually prescribed for the treatment of tension headaches. It may cause central nervous system depressant effects.

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ADDITIONAL SUMMARIES

  1. DS Drugs that cause central nervous system depressant effects can impair driving ability. When used in combination with other CNS depressant drugs, including ethyl alcohol, these effects may be enhanced.
  2. SS Drugs that cause central nervous system stimulant effects can impair driving ability. The impairment may manifest itself as over-aggressive or irresponsible driving behavior, or may mimic depressant effects due to fatigue caused from overuse.
  3. MS Marijuana (cannabis sativa) is known to cause many psychomotor effects that are detrimental to safe driving. These include impaired tracking, coordination and perceptual skills as well as deterioration of driving ability on the test track. Ethyl alcohol has been shown to have an additive effect in this impairment.
  4. PS Psychedelic drugs cause driving impairment due to their ability to alter the perception of reality in the user. Many of these drugs cause auditory, tactile or visual hallucinations, any of which would be detrimental to safe driving.

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