RIPA Board Reports

2021 Quick Facts

Officers searched, detained on the curb or in a patrol car, handcuffed, and removed from vehicles more Black individuals than White individuals, despite stopping more than twice the number of White individuals (1,322,201) than Black individuals (635,092).

Actions Taken by Race/Ethnicity

Actions Taken by Race/Ethnicity



Overall Actions Taken During Stops by Officers

Searches
Searches
11.3%
Curbside or patrol car detentions
Curbside or Patrol Car Detentions
10.2%
Handcuffing
Handcuffing
8.4%
Orders to exit vehicle
Orders to Exit Vehicle
3.9%

Overall Search and Discovery Rates

Bar graph of Search and Discovery Rate

Black individuals were searched 2.5 times the rate of White individuals. Search discovery rates refer to the proportion of searched individuals found to be in possession of contraband or evidence. Although Black, Hispanic, and Multiracial individuals were searched at a higher rate than White individuals, officers discovered contraband or evidence at a lower rate for those racial/ethnic groups in comparison to searches of White individuals.

Use of Force

Odds of Officers Using Force Compared to White Individuals
Bar Graph of Use of Force - Odds of Officers Using Force Compared to White Individuals

Officers were more likely to use force against Black and Hispanic individuals compared to White individuals, whereas officers were less likely to use force on Asian and other individuals. Specifically, the odds of an officer using force during a stop were 1.45 times and 1.18 times greater for Black and Hispanic individuals, respectively, than White individuals. The odds of an officer using force during stops of Asian or other individuals were 0.83 and 0.93 times lower, respectively, compared to White individuals.

Additional information can be found on the Fact Sheet to 2021 Report, pdf

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2021 RIPA Board Report

As required by RIPA, each year California’s Racial and Identity Profiling Advisory (RIPA) Board produces a report on the past and current status of racial and identity profiling with policy recommendations for eliminating it.

2021 RIPA Board Report California’s Racial and Identity Profiling Advisory Board (Board) is pleased to release its Fourth Annual Report. The Report provides recommendations from the Board for all law enforcement agencies, policymakers, the Commission on Peace Officer Standards Training (POST), community members, and advocates – on policy reform, rooted in best practices, to help all law enforcement agencies eliminate racial and identity profiling and improve law enforcement and community relations. Download the full 2021 Report

Additional Resources

Previous RIPA Reports

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